在Linux上安装

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    您可以在下载页面获取不同Linux发行版的MuseScore软件包,AppImage是其中最简单、适用发行版最广的安装方式。若您有偏爱,当然也可以使用发行版软件包的方式进行安装。从源代码编译也是一种方式。

    AppImage

    AppImage文件几乎可以运行在所有Linux发行版上:应用及其所需的所有文件全部封装在一个AppImage文件里,如同一个便携版软件。通过以下步骤,可以让MuseScore的AppImage在您的系统中运行。

    第一步:下载

    AppImages come in different versions. Make sure you download the right one for your system. To check the architecture of your system:
    AppImage文件有多种不同架构的版本,请确保您下载的是正确的版本。您可以通过以下步骤来得知系统架构:

    1. 打开终端;
    2. 输入
        arch
     

        uname -m
     

    输出结果会类似于 “i686”, “x86_64” 或者 “armv7”:

    • i686(或类似的) - 32位 Intel/AMD 处理器(常见于老旧计算机)。
    • x86_64 (或类似的) - 64位 Intel/AMD 处理器(现代笔记本、台式机以及大多数Chromebook)。
    • armv7 (或更高的版本) - ARM 处理器。(手机,平板电脑,运行Ubuntu Mate的第二、第三代树莓派以及一些Chromebook。 大部分为32位)

    现在您可以转到下载 页面找到符合您电脑架构的AppImage。下载的文件将以 “MuseScore-X.Y.Z-$(arch).AppImage”命名(如MuseScore-3.6.2-x86_64.AppImage)。

    第二步:给予安装权限

    可以使用两种方法:

    使用文件管理器:

    (以Nautilus为例)
    1. 在AppImage上右键后选择“属性”。
    2. 打开“权限”选项卡。
    3. 打开“允许执行文件”选项。

    不同文件管理器的操作方法可能有所出入。

    使用终端:

    此命令适用于所有Linux系统(提示:此指令预设您下载的AppImage文件在“~/Downloads”目录下。若非如此,请将指令中的路径修改为您文件所在的目录):

        cd ~/Downloads
        chmod u+x MuseScore*.AppImage
     

    第三步:运行

    • 双击文件即可运行程序。

    Note: You can move the AppImage to wherever it is most convenient. And to "uninstall" it, just delete it.
    提示:您可随时移动AppImage文件到您想要的地方,若要“卸载”它,删除文件即可。

    安装AppImage

    上文所述步骤虽然让您得以运行AppImage,但没有让其真正整合入系统:软件不会出现在应用程序菜单中、MuseScore文件(MSCZ等)没有和软件相关联、MuseScore文件无法显示正确的图标。

    因此,您需要真正安装软件,才能解决这些问题:

    1. 打开终端;
    2. 输入以下命令(提示:和前文一样,此指令预设您下载的AppImage文件在“~/Downloads”目录下。若非如此,请将指令中的路径修改为您文件所在的目录):
        cd ~/Downloads
        ./MuseScore*.AppImage install
     

    您也可以只使用一条命令:

        ~/Downloads/MuseScore*.AppImage install
     

    使用"--help"和"man"选项以获取更多可用的命令行选项:

        ./MuseScore*.AppImage --help   # 显示所有命令行选项
        ./MuseScore*.AppImage man      # 显示帮助页(解释选项作用)
     

    发行版安装包

    Debian

    (Ideally before, otherwise while or after) installing MuseScore itself, you can install one or more soundfont packages (if none is installed, the dependencies will pull in a suitable soundfont automatically):

    • musescore-general-soundfont-small: the standard MuseScore_General soundfont in SF3 format, as shipped with MuseScore for other operating systems
    • musescore-general-soundfont: the MuseScore_General HQ soundfont in SF3 format, as available via the Extensions manager
    • musescore-general-soundfont-lossless: the MuseScore_General HQ soundfont in uncompressed SF2 format: takes up a lot more space on your hard disc, but offers the highest sound quality and extremely fast startup times
    • fluidr3mono-gm-soundfont: the old soundfont shipped with MuseScore 2.0 (antecessor of MuseScore_General), use only if resources are very tight or you need it
    • timgm6mb-soundfont: the old soundfont shipped with MuseScore 1.3; cannot substitute the others; use only if you need it; extremely tiny

    Note: only the MuseScore_General soundfont (HQ or regular) supports single-note dynamics (SND), and you need at least version 0.1.6 of those soundfonts (from unstable or backports) for SND support!

    The command sudo update-alternatives --config MuseScore_General.sf3 can be used at any time to select the default soundfont used by MuseScore if you install more than one (note timgm6mb-soundfont cannot be selected here).

    Then, install the musescore3 package for MuseScore 3.x (the current stable version) or musescore for MuseScore 2.x (there’s also musescore-snapshot for the unstable developer preview). The packages are available in the following distributions:

    • musescore3: sid (unstable), bullseye (testing/Debian 11), buster-backports (stable/Debian 10), stretch-backports-sloppy (oldstable/Debian 9)
    • musescore: buster (stable/Debian 10), stretch-backports (oldstable/Debian 9), jessie-backports-sloppy (oldoldstable/Debian 8)
    • musescore-snapshot: experimental (usable on unstable)

    See https://backports.debian.org/Instructions/ for instructions on how to add an official Debian backports repository to your system and install packages from there.

    Note: without the appropriate backports, older versions may be available: MuseScore 2.0.3 on stretch, MuseScore 1.3 on jessie. Using the latest 2.3.2 version for 2.x-format scores instead (or conversion to 3.x) is strongly recommended!

    Fedora

    1. 导入GPG密钥:

      su
      rpm --import http://prereleases.musescore.org/linux/Fedora/RPM-GPG-KEY-Seve
       
    2. 到MuseScore的下载页面。点击符合您电脑架构的稳定版Fedora链接。

    3. 对于不同架构,您有两种方式来安装MuseScore

    • 对于 i386架构

          su
      yum localinstall musescore-X.Y-1.fc10.i386.rpm
       
      • 对于x86_64架构
          su
      yum localinstall musescore-X.Y-1.fc10.x86_64.rpm
       

    如果安装后没有声音,可以查看 Fedora 11的声音问题.

    KDE neon 18.04 (bionic)

    KDE neon的软件包与一般Ubuntu PPA文件构建在不同软件仓库上,这也是构建KDE neon版本软件包的唯一方法。由于OpenSUSE构建服务的限制,我们只能提供amd64架构(64位PC)的软件包,而没有ARM架构(如Slimbook和Pinebook remix等设备)的软件包。

    All commands listed below must be entered in a terminal, in one line each.

    1. Remove the Ubuntu PPAs (all three of them) from your system if you’ve ever configured it before. This is generally in /etc/apt/sources.list or one of the files below /etc/apt/sources.list.d/; if you used add-apt-repository (the recommended way) to enable the PPA, you can remove them with: sudo rm -f /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mscore-ubuntu-ubuntu-mscore*

      KDE neon is not compatible with the Ubuntu PPAs!

    2. Install a few standard packages (usually they are already there, but just in case they aren’t) to be able to securely download the repository signature key:

      sudo apt-get install wget ca-certificates
     
    1. Download (via secure HTTPS connection) and install the repository signing key:
      wget -O - https://download.opensuse.org/repositories/home:/mirabile:/mscore/bionic-neon/Release.key | sudo apt-key add -
     
    1. Enable the repository:
      echo deb https://download.opensuse.org/repositories/home:/mirabile:/mscore/bionic-neon ./ | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mscore.list
     
    1. Make the new packages available:
      sudo apt-get update
     

    Now, it’s time to install one or more soundfont packages (ideally install the one you want before installing MuseScore):

    • musescore-general-soundfont-small: the standard MuseScore_General soundfont in SF3 format, as shipped with MuseScore for other operating systems
    • musescore-general-soundfont: the MuseScore_General HQ soundfont in SF3 format, as available via the Extensions manager
    • musescore-general-soundfont-lossless: the MuseScore_General HQ soundfont in uncompressed SF2 format: takes up a lot more space on your hard disc, but offers the highest sound quality and extremely fast startup times
    • fluidr3mono-gm-soundfont: the old soundfont shipped with MuseScore 2.0 (antecessor of MuseScore_General), use only if resources are very tight or you need it
    • timgm6mb-soundfont: the old soundfont shipped with MuseScore 1.3; cannot substitute the others; use only if you need it; extremely tiny

    If you skip this step, a suitable soundfont will be automatically installed when you install MuseScore itself in the final step.

    Note: only the MuseScore_General soundfont (HQ or regular) supports single-note dynamics (SND), and you need at least version 0.1.6 of those soundfonts (from our repository) for SND support!

    The command sudo update-alternatives --config MuseScore_General.sf3 can be used at any time to select the default soundfont used by MuseScore if you install more than one (note timgm6mb-soundfont cannot be selected here).

    Finally, you can install the latest stable version of MuseScore with sudo apt-get install musescore3 and the old 2.x version with sudo apt-get install musescore (the musescore-snapshot package with an instable developer preview is also available).

    Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Xubuntu, …

    警告:此方法适用于KDE neon用户(见上文)!

    MuseScore 2.x (the old version) is available from 18.10 (cosmic) to 19.10 (eoan) out of the box. Older Ubuntu releases carry older versions (18.04 (bionic) has 2.1, 16.04 (xenial) has 2.0, 14.04 (trusty) and 12.04 (precise) have 1.3 and 1.2, respectively). Similar to the Debian instructions, we recommend using the latest 2.3.2 version for old 2.x scores instead, or migrating those scores to MuseScore 3.

    Besides the versions supplied by the distribution itself, the MuseScore Debian packager provides newer versions of MuseScore for older Ubuntu releases in official PPAs (package archives).

    Please activate the Stable releases of MuseScore 3 repository on your system and then install the musescore3 package, available for all releases from 18.04 (bionic) onwards. (It is not feasible to provide MuseScore 3 for older Ubuntu releases, as those lack the minimum Qt version required by MuseScore 3.)

    If you wish to install the older MuseScore 2, activate the Stable releases of MuseScore 2 PPA and install the musescore package, available for 12.04 (precise), 14.04 (trusty), 16.04 (xenial), and 18.04 (bionic) onwards. (Some intermediate releases may have slightly older MuseScore versions still available, but it’s best to update to the next LTS.) On the ancient 12.04 (precise) and 14.04 (trusty) releases, this will upgrade the Qt library in your system, which may break unrelated software (and on 12.04 even the C++ libraries are upgraded), mind you; best to upgrade to a newer LTS.

    There’s also a MuseScore Nightly Builds (unstable development builds) PPA, from which the daring can install the musescore-snapshot package, for LTS, that is, 18.04 (bionic) only.

    WARNING: these PPAs are only suitable for Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Xubuntu/… but not for Debian or KDE neon!

    As with Debian, you can install one or more soundfont packages (ideally install the one you want before installing MuseScore, but if you don’t, a suitable one will be installed alongside MuseScore):

    • musescore-general-soundfont-small: the standard MuseScore_General soundfont in SF3 format, as shipped with MuseScore for other operating systems
    • musescore-general-soundfont: the MuseScore_General HQ soundfont in SF3 format, as available via the Extensions manager
    • musescore-general-soundfont-lossless: the MuseScore_General HQ soundfont in uncompressed SF2 format: takes up a lot more space on your hard disc, but offers the highest sound quality and extremely fast startup times
    • fluidr3mono-gm-soundfont: the old soundfont shipped with MuseScore 2.0 (antecessor of MuseScore_General), use only if resources are very tight or you need it
    • timgm6mb-soundfont: the old soundfont shipped with MuseScore 1.3; cannot substitute the others; use only if you need it; extremely tiny

    Note: only the MuseScore_General soundfont (HQ or regular) supports single-note dynamics (SND), and you need at least version 0.1.6 of those soundfonts (possibly from the PPA) for SND support!

    The command sudo update-alternatives --config MuseScore_General.sf3 can be used at any time to select the default soundfont used by MuseScore if you install more than one (note timgm6mb-soundfont cannot be selected here).

    您也可在下载页面查看所有可用的发行版

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