Figured bass

Page status: 
Update for 2.0 finished

Adding a new figured bass indication

  1. Select the note to which the figured bass applies.
  2. Press the Figured Bass shortcut (default Ctrl+G; can be changed in Preferences).
  3. Enter the text in the editor 'blue box' as required (see below).
  4. Press Space to move to the next note ready for another figured bass indication OR click outside the editor box to exit it.

Example 1

With Space, the editor advances to the next note or rest of the staff to which figured bass is being added. To move to a point in between or to extend a figured bass group for a longer duration, see below Group Duration.

Tab advances the editing box to the beginning of the next measure.

Shift+Space moves the editing box to the previous staff note or rest.

Shift+Tab moves the editing box to the beginning of the previous measure.

Text format

Digits

Digits are entered directly. Groups of several digits stacked one above the other are also entered directly in a single text, stacking them with Enter:

Example 2

Accidentals

Accidentals can be entered using regular keys:

To enter: type:
double flat bb
flat b
natural h
sharp #
double sharp ##

These characters will automatically turn into the proper signs when you leave the editor. Accidentals can be entered before or after a digit (and of course, in place of a digit, for altered thirds), according to the required style; both styles are properly aligned, with the accidental 'hanging' at the left or at the right.

Combined shapes

Slashed digits or digits with a cross can be entered by adding \, / or + after the digit (combining suffixes); the proper combined shape will be substituted when leaving the editor:

Example 3

The built-in font can manage combination equivalence, favoring the more common substitution:

1+, 2+, 3+, 4+ result in Modern digits 1 (or Historic digits 1)

and 5\, 6\, 7\, 8\, 9\ result in Modern digits 1 (or Historic digits 2)

Please remember that / can only by combined with 5; any other 'slashed' figure is renderd with a question mark.

+ can also be used before a digit; in this case it is not combined, but it is properly aligned ('+' hanging at the left side).

Parentheses

Open and closed parentheses, both round: '(, ')' and square: '[', ']', can be inserted before and after accidentals, before and after a digit, before and after a continuation line; added parentheses will not disturb the proper alignment of the main character.

Notes:

  • The editor does not check that parentheses, open and closed, round or square, are properly balanced.
  • Several parentheses in a row are non-syntactical and prevent proper recognition of the entered text.
  • A parenthesis between a digit and a combining suffix ('+', '\', '/') is accepted, but prevents shape combination.

Continuation lines

Continuation lines are input by adding an '_' (underscore) at the end of the line. Each digit of a group can have its own continuation line:

Example 4

Continuation lines are drawn for the whole duration of the figured bass group (but currently are not continued on following systems, the same as for lyric continuation lines).

'Extended' continuation lines

Occasionally, a continuation line has to connect with the continuation line of a following group, when a chord degree has to be kept across two groups. Examples (both from J. Boismortier, Pièces de viole, op. 31, Paris 1730):

Example 4b

In the first case, each group has its own continuation line; in the second, the continuation line of the first group is carried 'into' the second.

This can be otained by entering several (two or more) underscores "__" at the end of the text line of the first group.

Duration

Each figured bass group has a duration, which is indicated by light gray line above it (of course, this line is for information only and it is not printed or exported to PDF).

Initially, a group has the same duration of the note to which it is attached. A different duration may be required to fit several groups under a single note or to extend a group to span several notes.

To achieve this, the key combinations listed below can be used; each of them
* advances the editing box of the indicated duration
AND
*sets the duration of the previous group up to the new editing box position.

Pressing several of them in sequence without entering any figured bass text repeatedly extends the previous group.

Type: to get:
Ctrl+1 1/64
Ctrl+2 1/32
Ctrl+3 1/16
Ctrl+4 1/8 (quaver)
Ctrl+5 1/4 (crochet)
Ctrl+6 half note (minim)
Ctrl+7 whole note (semibrevis)
Ctrl+8 2 whole notes (brevis)

(The digits are the same used to set the note durations)

Setting the exact figured bass group duration is only mandatory in two cases:

  1. when several groups are fit under a single staff note (there is no other way!)
  2. when continuation lines are used, as line length depends on the group duration.

However, it is a good practice to always set the duration to the intended value, as this info might be used by plugins and is also exported to MusicXML.

Editing existing figured basses

To edit a figured bass indication already entered:

  • Select it, or the note it belongs to and press the same Figured Bass shortcut used to create a new one
    or
  • Double-click it

The usual text editor box will open with the text converted back to plain characters ('b', '#' and 'h' for accidentals, separate combining suffixes, underscores, etc.) for simpler editing.

Once done, press Space to move to a next note, or click outside the editor box to exit it, as for newly created figured basses.

Style

The StyleGeneral... menu command allows to configure how figured bass is rendered. Select "Figured Bass" in the list on the left side to display the following dialogue box:

Configuration dialogue box

The Font drop list contains all the fonts which have been configured for figured bass. A standard installation contains only one font, "MuseScore Figured Bass", which is also the default font.

The Size is the size of the font (in points). It is linked to the spatium value: for the default spatium, the entered value is used; for smaller or larger spatium values, a size value proportionally smaller or larger is used.

Vertical Position is the distance (in spatial) from the top of the staff to the top margin of the figured bass text. Negative values go up (figured bass above the staff) and positive values go down (figured bass below the staff: a value greater than 4 is needed to step over the staff itself).

Line Height is the distance between the base line of each figured bass line; it is expressed in percent of the font size.

The following picture visualizes each numeric parameter:

Parameters

The Top / Bottom radio buttons select the vertical alignment: with Top, the top line of each group is aligned with the main vertical position and the group 'hangs' from it (this is normally used with figured bass notation and is the default); with Bottom, the bottom line is aligned with the main vertical position and the group 'sits' on it (this is sometimes used in some kinds of harmonic analysis notations):

Vertical alignment

The Modern / Historic radio buttons select the typographic style of the combined shapes. The difference between the two styles is shown below:

Styles

Proper syntax

For the relevant substitutions and shape combinations to take effect and for proper alignment, the figured bass mechanism expects input texts to follow some rules (which are in any case, the rules for a syntactical figured bass indication):

  • There can be only one accidental (before or after), or only one combining suffix per figure;
  • There cannot be both an accidental and a combining suffix;
  • There can be an accidental without a digit (altered third), but not a combining suffix without a digit.
  • Any other character not listed above is not expected.

If a text entered does not follow these rules, it will not be processed: it will be stored and displayed as it is, without any layout.

Summary of keys

Type: to get:
Ctrl+G Adds a new figured bass group to the selected note.
Space Advances the editing box to the next note.
Shift+Space Moves the editing box to the previous note.
Tab Advances the editing box to the next measure.
Shift+Tab Moves the editing box to the previous measure.
Ctrl+1 Advances the editing box of 1/64, setting the duration of the previous group.
Ctrl+2 Advances the editing box of 1/32, setting the duration of the previous group.
Ctrl+3 Advances the editing box of 1/16, setting the duration of the previous group.
Ctrl+4 Advances the editing box of 1/8 (quaver), setting the duration of the previous group.
Ctrl+5 Advances the editing box of 1/4 (crochet), setting the duration of the previous group.
Ctrl+6 Advances the editing box of half note (minim), setting the duration of the previous group.
Ctrl+7 Advances the editing box of whole note (semibrevis), setting the duration of the previous group.
Ctrl+8 2 whole notes (brevis), setting the duration of the previous group.
B B Enters a double flat.
B Enters a flat.
H Enters a natural.
# Enters a sharp.
# # Enters a double sharp.
_ Enters a continuation line.
_ _ Enters an extended continuation line.
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