Slightly modified version of the included "Color notes" demo plugin. Difference is that this plugin only apply color to notes with fingering and each finger get the same color throughout the score.
- download qml file (make sure you save/rename as .qml) to your plugin folder (Documents/MuseScore2/Plugins/).
- Enable plugin in Plugins → Plugins Manager...
- In the Advanced workspace, add fingering to notes.
- Run plugin from Plugins → Notes → Fingering Colors.
Two plugins have been run on the example below. CombatCube's Fingering positioner and this plugin.