Synthétiseur

Updated 3 mois ago

    Généralités

    Pour afficher le Synthétiseur : Sélectionnez AffichageSynthétiseur depuis la barre de menu.

    Le Synthétiseur est le panneau de contrôle de la sortie son de MuseScore, il permet de :

    • Charger et organiser les banques de sons pour lire la musique.
    • Appliquer des effets de réverbération et de compression.
    • Régler la hauteur du diapason.
    • Changer le volume de sortie.
    • Sélectionner les Contrôleurs Midi pour l'utilisation des Nuances sur une Seule Note (version 3.1 et ultérieure).

    La boite de dialogue du Synthétiseur est divisée en plusieurs onglets :

    • Fluid : Un synthétiseur logiciel qui utilise les banques de sons au format SoundFont SF2 / SF3.
    • Zerberus : Un synthétiseur logiciel qui utilise les banques de sons au format SFZ.
    • Effets principaux : Appliquent des multi-effets à la partition.
    • Réglage du diapason : Pour changer la hauteur du diapason.
    • Nuances (version 3.1 et ultérieures) : Configure les contrôleurs Midi utilisés par les Nuances sur une Seule Note.

    Enregistrer / charger les paramètres du synthétiseur

    Les boutons au bas de la fenêtre du Synthétiseur ont les fonctions suivantes :

    Bouton Fonction
    Définir comme valeur par défaut Enregistre toutes les valeurs en cours d'utilisation du synthétiseur comme valeurs par défaut. Celles-ci seront chargées automatiquement au démarrage de MuseScore.
    Charger les valeurs par défaut Charge les dernières valeurs sauvegardées par défaut du Synthétiseur.
    Enregistrer dans la partition Sauvegarde tous les paramètres actuels du synthétiseur dans la partition active uniquement.
    Charger depuis la partition Charge les paramètres du synthétiseur depuis la partition active.

    Notes : (1) Sont inclus dans les "paramètres du Synthétiseur" l'ordre des SoundFonts et des fichiers SFZ, le set-up des effets, la hauteur du diapason, et le volume. (2) Un seul jeu de paramètres du Synthétiseur peut être actif à la fois — par exemple, si plusieurs partitions sont ouvertes en même temps, il est impossible de faire des modifications dans le Synthétiseur pour une partition en conservant les paramètres des autres partitions inchangés. (3) Les changements de paramètres du synthétiseur ne seront pas entendues lors de l'export des fichiers audio tant qu'ils ne sont pas d'abord sauvegardés dans la partition (voir le tableau ci-dessus). Voir aussi Réglage du diapason (ci-dessous).

    Fluid

    Cliquez sur l'onglet Fluid pour afficher le panneau de contrôle des banques de sons SoundFont SF2 / SF3. La SoundFont MuseScore_General.sf3 est déjà installée par défaut.

    Fluid dans le Synthesizer

    You can load, rearrange and delete soundfonts as required. Playback can be shared between any combination of different soundfonts (and/or SFZ files). The order of soundfonts in Fluid is reflected in the default order of instruments in the mixer.

    Charger une soundfont

    1. Click on the Add button
    2. Click on a soundfont in the list.

    To be able to load the soundfont, it first needs to be installed in your Soundfonts folder. This will ensure that it appears in the list in step 2 (above).

    Pour réorganiser les soundfonts

    1. Click on a soundfont
    2. Use the up/down arrows (on the right-hand side) to adjust the order.
    3. Repeat with other soundfonts in the list if required.

    The order of virtual instrument sets in the Synthesizer is reflected in the order of instruments listed in the Mixer. So, if playback of a score depends on a mix of instrument sets, it is advisable to save the Synthesizer configuration to the score in question by pressing the Save to Score button. When you next wish to play back the score, press the Load from Score to load the same configuration. However, remember this only sets the order of instruments—not the instruments themselves, which should be in place on your computer.

    Pour retirer une soundfont

    1. Click on the name of the soundfont
    2. Click on the Delete button.

    This removes the soundfont from the synthesizer but does not uninstall it from the Soundfonts folder: it will still be available if you wish to reload it later.

    Zerberus

    Click on the Zerberus tab to access the control panel for SFZ sound sample libraries. You can add, delete or reorder files in a similar way to the Fluid tab. Note that, as with Fluid, the SFZ files must first be installed in your soundfonts folder before they can be loaded into the synthesizer.

    Volume

    The slider on the right of the Synthesizer controls the playback volume: any changes made here last only to the end of the session, unless saved to the score or set as the new default.

    Effets

    The Master Effects tab of the Synthesizer allows you to add reverb and compression to your score.

    Effets Zita1 et SC4 dans le synthétiseur
    Effets principaux avec la Réverbération Zita1 et le Compresseur SC4.

    To turn an effect on or off:

    • Select an option from the drop-down list next to Effect A or Effect B (the effects are applied in series, A → B).

    To store and load effects configurations, use the buttons at the bottom of the Synthesizer window. See Synthesizer settings (above) for details.

    Réverbération Zita 1

    The Zita 1 stereo reverb module allows you to simulate the ambience of anything from a small room to a large hall. The pre-delay, reverb time and tone of the reverb can be finely tuned using the controls provided:

    • Delay: Set a pre-delay for the reverb from 20-100 ms.
    • Low RT60 (Low frequency reverb time): Use the grey control to adjust the center frequency (50–1000 Hz) of the low frequency band which you want to affect: the green control adjusts the reverb time (1–8 secs) of this frequency band.
    • Mid RT60 (Mid-range reverb time): Adjust the reverb time (1–8 secs) of the mid-range frequency band.
    • HF Damping: Adjusts the high frequency component of the reverb. Increasing this value increases the frequency of the cut-off point and makes the reverb appear brighter and longer.
    • EQ1: Allows you to cut or boost (-15 to +15) a frequency band (center = 40 Hz - 2 KHz) in the lower part of the spectrum.
    • EQ2: Allows you to cut or boost (-15 to +15) a frequency band (center = 160 Hz - 10 KHz) in the higher part of the spectrum.
    • Output: Controls the amount of effect applied. "Dry" is no effect. "Wet" indicates 100% reverb. "Mix" is a 50/50 balance of wet/dry signal.

    Note: EQ1 and EQ2 affect the tone of the reverb only, not the dry (unprocessed) signal.

    To quickly set up an effects patch, set "Output" to "Mix" and adjust the "Mid RT60" control to the desired reverb time. Then fine tune the effect as explained above.

    Compresseur SC4

    The SC4 stereo compressor gives you fine control over the playback's dynamic range, reducing the volume variation between loud and soft sounds. It offers the following controls:

    • RMS: Adjusts the balance between RMS (0) and Peak (1) compression. In the former, the compressor responds to averaged-out levels in the signal; in Peak mode, the compressor responds to peak levels.
    • Attack: (1.5–400 ms) The length of time it takes for compression to engage fully after the signal exceeds the threshold level.
    • Release: (2–800 ms) The time it takes for compression to return to zero after the signal falls below the threshold level.
    • Threshold: (in dB) The signal level above which compression starts to take effect. Lowering the threshold increases the amount of signal that is compressed.
    • Ratio: The amount of compression applied to the signal above the threshold. The higher the ratio, the greater the compression. Varies between 1:1 and 20:1.
    • Knee: Allows you to select a range between "soft knee" and "hard knee". The softer the knee, the more gradual the transition between uncompressed and compressed signal.
    • Gain: Compression tends to lower the volume, so use this control to boost the signal as required.

    To quickly set-up, try setting RMS = 1, Threshold = -20 db, Ratio = 6. Increase Gain to restore the lost volume. Then fine-tune as explained above.

    Réglage du diapason

    The Tuning tab is where you can adjust the program's master tuning. For Concert Pitch instruments, A4 = 440 Hz by default.

    Réglage du diapason dans le synthétiseur

    To change the Master tuning:

    • Enter a new value in the Master tuning field, then press Change Tuning.

    Notes: (1) This tuning applies to all scores in the current session only. To make this the program default or to store it to a particular score, see Save/Load Synthesizer settings. (2) To apply the new tuning to exported audio files (WAV, MP3, OGG), press Save to Score before exporting.

    Nuances (version 3.1 et ultérieures)

    Click on the Dynamics tab to access the control panel for Single Note Dynamics:

    Nuances dans le synthétiseur

    • Dynamics method: You can choose either between 1) Default (single-note dynamics and velocity), 2) Velocity only (no single-note dynamics), 3) CC events only (constant velocity).
    • CC to use: Depending on the SoundFont you use, you may have to choose the Continuous Controller to use, 1) CC 1, 2) CC 2 (default), 3) CC 4, 4) CC 11.

    In the Advanced Settings box, you can choose to enable or disable the Expression Controller for Instruments Sound:

    • Switch all patches: Select 1) To Expressive (to enable for all instruments sounds), 2) To Non-Expressive (to disable for all instruments sounds), 3) Reset All (Reset all instruments sounds to defaults)

    Voir aussi

    Do you still have an unanswered question? Please log in first to post your question.