Updated 13 hours ago

    Add a hairpin

    Hairpins are symbols used to indicate gradual changes in volume in the score. There are two kinds: crescendo (getting louder) and decrescendo (getting quieter).

    Crescendo and Decrescendo

    To create a hairpin:

    1. Select a range of notes or measures;
    2. Use one of the following shortcuts:
      • <: to create a crescendo hairpin.
      • >: to create a diminuendo hairpin (decrescendo).

    Alternatively, use one of the following options:

    • Select a range of notes or measures, and double-click a hairpin in a palette.
    • Drag and drop a hairpin from a palette onto a staff line.

    Adjust length and height

    A hairpins is a type of Line with playback properties, and its length is adjusted similarly:

    1. Double-click on the hairpin to enter edit mode. Then click on the end handle that you want to move:

      Crescendo shows handles and anchors in edit mode

    2. Use one of the following shortcuts:

      • Shift+ to move the end handle, and its anchor, right by one note or rest.
      • Shift+ to move the end handle, and its anchor, left by one note or rest;

      This method of extending or shortening the hairpin maintains playback integrity and allows it to cross line breaks:

      Crescendo anchor extends to the next note

    3. To fine-tune the horizontal position of an end-handle (without changing playback), use the following shortcuts:

      • to move the handle right by 0.1 sp.
      • to move the handle left 0.1 sp.
      • Ctrl+ (Mac: Cmd+) to move the handle right one sp.
      • Ctrl+ (Mac: Cmd+) to move the handle left one sp.

    To change the height of a hairpin:

    • Adjust the lower handle at the mouth of the hairpin (e.g. the blue square below):

    Adjust hairpin width

    Cresc. and dim. lines

    In addition to hairpins, there are cresc.   _     _     _ and dim.   _     _     _ lines with the same function in the Lines palette. You can adjust the text, if desired, in the Text Line Core section of the Inspector.

    To turn a hairpin into its equivalent text line:

    • Select the hairpin and, in the Hairpin section of the Inspector, select the appropriate line from "Type."

    Edit hairpin properties

    Properties of the hairpin can be edited in the Inspector, as follows:

    • Element: Edit the Y offset to change the height of the hairpin above or below the staff.
    • Line: Edit line properties such as color, line style and thickness.
    • Text line core: Add text and set text properties.
    • Hairpin:
      • Type: Change the type of hairpin: crescendo, decrescendo or text.
      • Placement: Set hairpin above or below the staff.
      • Dynamic range: i.e. which staves will be affected by hairpin playback.
      • Velocity change: … across the span of the hairpin;
      • Height: The width at the mouth of the hairpin.
      • Continue height: The width of the hairpin at the end of a system, before it continues to the next system.

    Hairpin playback

    Crescendo and diminuendo lines only affect playback from one note to the next: they have no affect (currently) on the playback of a single note or a series of tied notes.

    By default, hairpins will affect playback only if dynamics are used before and after the hairpin. For example, a crescendo spanning notes between p and f dynamics will cause a dynamic change on playback. However, between any two successive dynamics only the first appropriate hairpin will have effect: a diminuendo between p and f will be ignored; of two or more crescendos between p and f, all but the first will be ignored.

    A hairpin may be used without dynamic marks, by adjusting "Velocity change" in the Inspector (values in the range 0 to 127).

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