合成器

9个月前更新
此翻译已过期,最新更新请查看英语版本: Synthesizer

    概述

    要显示 合成器请前往顶部菜单,点选视图合成器

    合成器不仅控制MuseScore的声音输出,还可以让您:

    • 加载并组织不同音色库进行乐谱的播放。
    • 应用诸如混响和压限这样的效果
    • 调节全局调音
    • 调节输出音量

    合成器窗口由四部分组成:

    • Fluid:可以播放SF2/SF3格式音色库的软件合成器。
    • Zerberus:可以播放SFZ格式的音色库的软件合成器。
    • 主效果:用以将多个效果应用至乐谱。
    • 调音:用以微调全局播放的曲调

    保存/加载合成器设置

    The buttons at the bottom of the Synthesizer window have the following functions:

    按钮 功能
    设为默认配置 保存当前所有的合成器配置并将之当作默认 配置。当您开启MuseScore时,这些步骤自动应用到合成器。
    载入默认配置 将上一次保存的默认设置加载合成器。
    保存配置至乐谱 仅把所有当前合成器配置保存到当前乐谱
    从乐谱加载配置 当前乐谱读取并加载合成器配置。

    注意: (1)合成器配置包括音色库次序、效果配置、主调律以及音量。(2) Only one set of Synthesizer settings can be in effect at a time—i.e. if multiple scores are open at once, it is not possible to make changes to the Synthesizer in one score and leave other scores' settings untouched. (3) Changes to synthesizer settings will not be heard in exported audio files unless saved to the score first (see table, above). See also Tuning (below).

    Fluid

    点击Fluid标签页以访问SF2/SF3 音色库控制面板。默认情况下,音色“MuseScore_General.sf3应当已经被装载。

    Fluid in Synthesizer

    您可以按需加载、排列删除音色库。乐谱支持同时播放不同音色库的音色。Fluid中的音色库顺序会影响到混音器中乐器的默认顺序

    装载音色

    1.点击添加按钮
    2. 点击在列的音色库

    To be able to load the soundfont, it first needs to be installed in your Soundfonts folder. This will ensure that it appears in the list in step 2 (above).

    To reorder the soundfonts

    1. Click on a soundfont
    2. Use the up/down arrows (on the right-hand side) to adjust the order.
    3. Repeat with other soundfonts in the list if required.

    The order of virtual instrument sets in the Synthesizer is reflected in the order of instruments listed in the Mixer. So, if playback of a score depends on a mix of instrument sets, it is advisable to save the Synthesizer configuration to the score in question by pressing the Save to Score button. When you next wish to play back the score, press the Load from Score to load the same configuration. However, remember this only sets the order of instruments—not the instruments themselves, which should be in place on your computer.

    To remove a soundfont

    1. Click on the name of the soundfont
    2. Click on the Delete button.

    This removes the soundfont from the synthesizer but does not uninstall it from the Soundfonts folder: it will still be available if you wish to reload it later.

    Zerberus

    Click on the Zerberus tab to access the control panel for SFZ sound sample libraries. You can add, delete or reorder files in a similar way to the Fluid tab. Note that, as with Fluid, the the SFZ files must first be installed in your soundfonts folder before they can be loaded into the synthesizer.

    Volume

    The slider on the right of the Synthesizer controls the playback volume: any changes made here last only to the end of the sesssion, unless saved to the score or set as the new default.

    Effects

    主调律标签页使您可以向乐谱添加混响压限器

    合成器的主调律界面

    To turn an effect on or off:

    • Select an option from the drop-down list next to Effect A or Effect B (the effects are applied in series, A → B).

    To store and load effects configurations, use the buttons at the bottom of the Synthesizer window. See 合成器配置 (above) for details.

    Zita 1 混响

    Zita 1 声道混响模块使您可以模拟从小房间到大礼堂到氛围。The pre-delay, reverb time and tone of the reverb can be finely tuned using the controls provided:

    • 延迟: Set a pre-delay for the reverb from 20-100 ms.
    • Low RT60 (Low frequency reverb time): Use the grey control to adjust the center frequency (50–1000 Hz) of the low frequency band which you want to affect: the green control adjusts the reverb time (1–8 secs) of this frequency band.
    • Mid RT60 (Mid-range reverb time): Adjust the reverb time (1–8 secs) of the mid-range frequency band.
    • HF Damping: Adjusts the high frequency component of the reverb. Increasing this value increases the frequency of the cut-off point and makes the reverb appear brighter and longer.
    • EQ1: Allows you to cut or boost (-15 to +15) a frequency band (center = 40 Hz - 2 KHz) in the lower part of the spectrum.
    • EQ2: Allows you to cut or boost (-15 to +15) a frequency band (center = 160 Hz - 10 KHz) in the higher part of the spectrum.
    • 输出: 控制混响程度。"Dry"为无效果;"Wet"指完全充分混响;"Mix"是介于"Dry"和"Wet"的效果。

    Note: EQ1 and EQ2 affect the tone of the reverb only, not the dry (unprocessed) signal.

    To quickly set up an effects patch, set "Output" to "Mix" and adjust the "Mid RT60" control to the desired reverb time. Then fine tune the effect as explained above.

    SC4 compressor

    The SC4 stereo compressor gives you fine control over the playback's dynamic range, reducing the volume variation between loud and soft sounds. It offers the following controls:

    • RMS: Adjusts the balance between RMS (0) and Peak (1) compression. In the former, the compressor responds to averaged-out levels in the signal; in Peak mode, the compressor responds to peak levels.
    • Attack: (1.5–400 ms) The length of time it takes for compression to engage fully after the signal exceeds the threshold level.
    • Release: (2–800 ms) The time it takes for compression to return to zero after the signal falls below the threshold level.
    • Threshold: (in dB) The signal level above which compression starts to take effect. Lowering the threshold increases the amount of signal that is compressed.
    • Ratio: The amount of compression applied to the signal above the threshold. The higher the ratio, the greater the compression. Varies between 1:1 to 20:1.
    • Knee: Allows you to select a range between "soft knee" and "hard knee". The softer the knee, the more gradual the transition between uncompressed and compressed signal.
    • Gain: Compression tends to lower the volume, so use this control to boost the signal as required.

    To quickly set-up, try setting RMS = 1, Threshold = -20 db, Ratio = 6. Increase Gain to restore the lost volume. Then fine-tune as explained above.

    调律

    调律标签页is where you can adjust the program's master tuning. For Concert Pitch instruments, A4 = 440 Hz by default.

    Tuning in Synthesizer

    要更改主调律:

    • Enter a new value in the 主调律 field, then press 更改调律.

    Notes: (1) This tuning applies to all scores in the current session only. To make this the program default or to store it to a particular score, see Save/Load Synthesizer settings. (2) To apply the new tuning to exported audio files (WAV, MP3, OGG), press Save to Score before exporting.

    参阅

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