指法谱

1个月前更新
此翻译已过期,最新更新请查看英语版本: Tablature

    有品弦乐器的音乐通常用指法谱(tab)来记谱,它直观地表现了弦和品格数:

    Tablature

    指法谱也可与传统的记谱方式合并:

    Standard staff plus tablature

    新建指法谱

    如果您希望创建一个指法谱作为新乐谱的一部分,请使用新乐谱向导。如果你想在已有的乐谱上添加乐谱,请使用乐器对话框。或者,您也可以转换现有的标准谱表。详见下文。

    使用新乐谱向导

    欲在新乐谱中创建指法谱(对于合并的谱表/指法谱谱表组参见下文):

    1. 打开新乐谱向导
    2. 输入乐谱信息(可选填)。单击 继续
    3. 选择模版文件页面,单击常规→选择乐器
    4. 乐器页面的左边栏,“弦乐 – 拨弦乐器”分类中选取所需的指法谱。然后点击添加.
    5. 完成新乐谱向导的剩余部分。

    提示:若所需的指法谱不能从选择乐器列表找到,不管怎样都可在上文的第四步添加指法谱。然后使用谱表/分谱属性对话框编辑指法谱以满足您的要求。

    使用“乐器”对话框

    To add a single tablature staff to an existing score (for combined staff/tab system see below):

    1. Open the instruments dialog (press I; or from the menu bar, select EditInstruments…).
    2. Add the tab staff as described in Add instruments ("Create a new score").

    通过更换谱表类型

    要在已有标准谱表和指法谱之间相互转换,请参考以下步骤:

    1. 在谱表上右键并点击谱表/分谱属性…。若“乐器”已经设为拨弦乐器分类,请看第三步。
    2. 若“乐器”不是拨弦乐器分类,请单击 更改乐器并在“弦乐 - 拨弦乐器”中选择合适的乐器。
    3. 单击高级样式属性...,从“模版”选取合适的指法谱选项后点击<重设为模版。如果必须,您可以通过“品格号”和“音符时值”标签页内微调显示。
    4. 两次单击OK来退出。

    编辑弦数据

    更改调率

    提示:若您仅要 查看但不改变乐器的调率,只需要看前两步。

    1. Right-click on the staff and select Staff/Part Properties….

      Staff/Part properties dialog

    2. Press the Edit String Data… button at the bottom of the dialog box. The String Data dialog opens:

      String data

    3. Click on a string pitch and select Edit String…. Or, alternatively, just double-click the string pitch.

    4. Select a new pitch in the Note Selection box and click OK. Or, alternatively, just double-click the new pitch.
    5. Click OK to close the "String Data" dialog box. Then click OK to close the "Staff/Part Properties" dialog.

    Notes: (1) If tuning is changed when the tablature for that instrument already contains some notes, fret marks will be adjusted automatically (if possible); (2) Any change of tuning to a particular instrument applies only to the score at hand, and does not change any program default settings.

    Add a string

    1. Right-click on the staff, select Staff/Part Properties…, then press Edit String Data.
    2. Click on a string pitch and select New String....
    3. Select the new pitch and press OK—or, alternatively, just double-click the new pitch. The new string is inserted below the selected string.

    Note: After adding a tablature string you will need to adjust the number of lines in the Staff/Part properties dialog.

    Delete a string

    1. Right-click on the staff, select Staff/Part Properties…, then press Edit String Data.
    2. Click on a string pitch and select Delete String.

    Note: After deleting a tablature string you will need to adjust the number of lines in the Staff/Part properties dialog.

    Mark unfretted string "open"

    This feature is used to mark a (bass) course as unstopped (i.e. like a harp string, only played in the open position): as on a Baroque lute or Theorbo etc. This means that only "0" (zero) or "a" is accepted as a fret mark: any other fret mark will be converted to 0/a.

    1. Right-click on the staff, select Staff/Part Properties…, then press Edit String Data.
    2. Check one or more boxes in the "Open" column.

    Change number of instrument frets

    This property defines the maximum fret number which can be entered on a tablature staff.

    1. Right-click on the staff, select Staff/Part Properties…, then press Edit String Data.
    2. Select or enter a new number in the "Number of frets" spin box.

    更改指法谱显示

    You can customize both the appearance of a tablature staff and the way that it displays the fret marks. To access these options:

    1. Right click on the staff and select Staff/Part Properties….
    2. Click on the Advanced Style Properties… button.

    Combine pitched staff with tablature

    Plucked-string instruments—such as the guitar—are commonly notated using both a music staff and tablature (TAB) together. MuseScore gives you the option of having the two staves either unlinked or linked:

    1. Unlinked Staves: The advantage of using this option is that each staff can be edited independently. To transfer music notation from one staff to the other, select the desired range and copy and paste it onto the other staff.

    2. Linked Staves: The staves are "mutually updating": i.e. any change you make to the notation in one staff is immediately applied to the other staff as well.

    A note on fret mark conflicts: When the same note is entered in two different voices, MuseScore tries to ensure that the fret marks do not overlap on the same string. Any overlaps which do occur are marked with red squares: these appear only in the document window and not on any printed copy. In almost all cases (e.g. frets 0 to 4 on the 6th string), overlapping is the desired result and no further adjustment is required. You can hide the red marks by selecting "View" and unticking "Show Unprintable."

    Create a new staff/tablature pair with the New Score Wizard

    1. Open the New Score wizard.
    2. Enter the score details (optional). Click Next.
    3. On the Choose template file page, click on Choose Instruments under "General".
    4. Select a pitched staff in the "Strings – Plucked" section of the left-hand column. Then click Add.
    5. Select the newly-created staff line (i.e. marked "Staff …") in the right-hand column and choose one of two options:
      • Click Add Staff to create an unlinked staff/tab pair.
      • Click Add Linked Staff to create a linked staff/tab pair.
    6. In the Staff type column, click on the dropdown list for the newly-created staff and select a tablature option (this can be modified later, if required, on the score page—see Staff/Part Properties).
    7. Change the staff order using the button if needed.
    8. Complete the rest of the New Score Wizard, or click Finish.

    Note: To create unlinked staves with separate mixer channels, instead of step "5" (above), select a Tablature staff in the left-hand column and click Add. Then continue with steps 6 and 7.

    Create a new staff/tablature pair in an existing score

    1. Open the Instruments editor (press I, or from the menu bar, select EditInstruments…).
    2. Then follow steps 4–8 above.

    Create a staff/tablature pair from an existing staff

    To add tablature to a plucked-string staff in the score (or vice versa):

    1. Open the Instruments editor (press I, or from the menu bar, select EditInstruments…).
    2. In the right-hand column, select the staff you want to create the staff/tab pair from, then follow one of the options shown in step 5 above.
    3. Continue with steps 6–8 above.

    Enter notes in tablature

    Using a computer keyboard

    1. In Normal mode, select the measure or existing note from which you want to begin note entry.
    2. Switch to note input mode (N): a short 'blue rectangle' appears around one tablature string: this is the current string.
    3. Select the duration of the note or rest that you wish to enter (see below).
    4. Press the up/down arrow keys to move the cursor to the desired string. Use the left/right arrow keys to navigate through the score.
    5. Press 0 to 9 to enter a fret mark from 0 to 9 on the current string; to enter numbers with several digits press each digit in sequence. Keys A to K (skipping I) can also be used: convenient when working in French tablature. For L , M, N, use the alphanumeric keyboard and type respectively 10, 11, 12... (Note: You cannot enter a number higher than the "Number of frets" value set in the Edit String Data dialog).

      Press ; (semicolon) to enter a rest of the selected duration.

    6. You can enter notes in different voices if required—just as you would in a standard staff.

    See also, Edit notes (below).

    Historical tablature

    Period notation for bass strings (lutes and sim.) is supported:

    • French tablature: letters with prefixed slash-like strokes right under the tab body: i.e. 7th string: "a", 8th string: "/a", 9th string: "//a" and so on, all in the first position below the tab body.

    • Italian tablature: numbers with 'ledger line'- like segment of string above the tab body: i.e. 7th string: "0" one position above the tab body with one 'ledger line'; 8th string: "0" two positions above the tab body with two 'ledger lines' and so on.

    Input of fretmarks is via computer keyboard only: by moving the note entry cursor below (French) or above (Italian) the tab body, 'shadow' slashes or ledger lines will indicate the target string to which the fret mark will be applied; pressing one of the fret keys, will enter (and lay out) the note on that string.

    Using a mouse

    To enter notes into tablature with a mouse:

    • Enter note input mode and select the note or rest duration (see below).
    • Click on a string to create a note there. Notes are initially created on fret 0 (or a for French tablatures): to correct, type in the right number from the keyboard.
    • You can also increase/decrease the fret mark using Alt+Shift+ or Alt+Shift+.
    • You can enter notes in different voices if required—just as you would in a standard staff.

    See also, Edit notes (below).

    Select note duration

    In note input mode, you can use any of the following methods to set note duration in tablature:

    • Press Shift+1 to Shift+9: Sets duration from a 128th note to a longa (availability of these shortcuts may depend on the platform and/or keyboard layout);
    • Press NumPad1 to NumPad9: Sets duration from a 128th note to a longa (if a numeric keypad exists and NumLock is on);
    • Click on a note duration icon in the Note Input toolbar above the document window;
    • Press Q to decrease the selected duration and W to increase it.

    Edit notes

    In Note input mode

    To edit an existing fret mark in note-input mode:

    • Position the cursor above the fret mark and simply retype the number.
    • Increment or decrement the fret mark using Alt+Shift+ or Alt+Shift+.

    普通模式下

    要在 普通模式下编辑已有的品格号:

    1. 选中一个或多个品号。
    2. 使用下列任意方案:
      • To increment or decrement, without changing the string: Press / .
      • To increment or decrement, changing strings, when possible, to minimize the fret number: Press Alt+Shift+ /
      • To move to an adjacent string (if the string is free and can produce that note): Press Ctrl+ / (Mac: Cmd+ / ). Alternatively, use the mouse to drag the fret mark up or down to an adjacent string.

    提示:品格号不能超过编辑弦数据对话框中“品格数量”的值。

    X型符头

    要将品格号改为X型符头:

    1. 请在非音符输入模式下选中一个或多个品格号。
    2. 按下Shift+X 来在X型符头和普通品格号之间切换。

    键盘快捷键一览

    音符输入模式

    快捷键 用途
    将上方弦选定为当前弦。
    将下方弦选定为当前弦。
    Shift+1Shift+9 选择时值(128分音符~二全音符)
    小键盘 1小键盘 9 同上。
    Q 减少当前输入时值。
    W 增加当前输入时值。
    09 输入品格数。
    AK 输入品格字母(I excluded)。
    Alt+Shift+ 提升选中音符的音高(自动换弦)
    Alt+Shift+ 降低选中音符的音高(自动换弦)
    ; (semicolon) 输入休止符。

    普通模式

    快捷键 用途
    0 to 9 更改选定音符或休止符的时值 (128分音符~二全音符)
    Alt+Shift+ 提升选中音符的音高(自动换弦)。
    在当前弦上提升音高。
    Alt+Shift+ 降低选中音符的音高(自动换弦)。
    在当前弦上降低音高。
    Ctrl+(Mac:Cmd+ 将音符移到上方的弦,同时保持音高。
    Ctrl+(Mac:Cmd+ 将音符移到下方的弦,同时保持音高。
    Shift+X X型符头切换开关。

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