谱表/声部属性

7个月前更新
此翻译已过期,最新更新请查看英语版本: Staff / Part properties

    谱表/声部属性对话框允许您修改谱表的显示、调音、移调、替换乐器等等。右击一行谱表并选择 谱表/声部属性 来打开它。

    Staff type properties
    3.0版本中的“谱表/声部属性”对话框

    谱表类型

    出于实用所需,一共存在四种不同类型的谱表:

    1a. 标准谱表 I。被大多数乐器(琴格、拨弦乐器除外)使用的音高谱。
    1b. 标准谱表 II。包含一个琴格、拨弦乐器的音高谱,有可以设置乐器的弦数以及调律的选项。
    2. 指法谱. 包含一个琴格、拨弦乐器的谱表,可将音乐显示为一系列在弦上的品格图。亦包含可以设置乐器的弦数以及调律的选项。
    3. 打击乐谱。一种打击乐器的音高谱。
    只要谱表对应着合适的乐器,它可以在“乐器”对话框被替换为另一种谱表。比如,若要把一行标准谱表替换为TAB符号谱,它必须对应着一种拨弦乐器。同样的,若要把标准谱表替换为打击乐谱,它需要对应一种合适的打击乐器,等等。

    “谱表/声部属性”中的大多数选项都适用于所有谱表,但是每个类型的谱表都会有一两个特殊的选项。

    谱表/声部属性: 适用于所有谱表

    下列有关谱表属性的选项适用于所有谱表:

    谱线
    组成谱表的谱线数量。

    谱线间距
    两条谱线之间的间距,单位为谱线距(简称为sp.)。注意不建议更改这项数据的默认数值。如果您想调整谱表的大小,请使用“页面设置…”对话框。

    谱表上的额外间距
    增加或者减少所有谱表组中选中的谱表和上方谱表的间距。注意:此设定不适用于谱表组中的第一行谱表,第一行谱表上方间距是用“最小/最大谱表组间距”来控制的(参看版面与格式:格式 → 样式… → 页面)。

    或者,您可以从乐谱页面直接修改谱表上的额外间距
    1. 按住 Shift 键;
    2. 单击谱表空白处并用鼠标向上或向下拖拽。

    注意:若要只改变特定谱表组中特定谱表之间的间距,参看换行符与占位符

    缩放比例
    用百分比的形式调整选中的谱表和其中的元素的大小(若要调整整体的乐谱大小,请使用 格式页面设置…中的“缩放比例”)。

    当谱表内容为空时隐藏谱表
    这个选项和格式 → 样式… → 乐谱中的“隐藏谱表组中的空白谱表”设定一同决定谱表为空白时是否隐藏。

    可能的值有:

    • 自动(默认):当谱表为空白、“隐藏谱表组中的空白谱表”被勾选时,谱表会被隐藏。
    • 总是:谱表在空白时会被隐藏,不论“隐藏谱表组中的空白谱表”有没有被勾选。
    • 从不:谱表在空白时不会被隐藏。
    • 乐器:对于含有多行谱表的乐器,只要乐器的所有谱表都为空白时,才会被隐藏。

    显示谱号
    是否显示谱表的谱号。

    显示拍号
    是否显示谱表的拍号。

    显示小节线
    是否显示谱表中的小节线。

    隐藏谱表组小节线
    显示/隐藏谱表最左端的小节线。

    即使谱表组为空也不隐藏
    这行谱表不会被隐藏,即使整个谱表组都是空的。这个选项否定格式 → 样式… → 乐谱中的任何“隐藏谱表组中的空白谱表”设定。

    缩小化谱表
    创建一个缩小化的谱表。您可以进入顶部菜单格式 → 样式 ... → 大小来设定缩小化的默认大小。

    隐藏谱线
    使谱线不可见。

    谱线颜色
    使用色彩选择器来改变谱线的颜色。

    Cutaway
    Used to create a cutaway staff in which only measures containing notes are visible(例如ossias(维基百科),或者被称作cutaway scores)。这可以独立于各种“隐藏空谱表”的情况下使用。

    乐器
    使用乐器快捷键 (I)或选择乐器对话框来加载乐器。与此相关的声音可按需在混音器中更改。

    分谱名称
    分谱的名称。也显示在混音器乐器对话框中(快捷键I)。

    完整乐器名
    完整乐器名称显示于第一行谱表组的左侧。可作为文本对象直接编辑。(参见文本编辑)。

    乐器名缩写
    完整乐器名称显示于除第一行外的谱表组的左侧。可作为文本对象直接编辑。(参见文本编辑)。所作的编辑影响到谱面中所有的缩写。

    可用音域

    • 入门级:在此音域之外的音符会以黄绿色标出。
    • 专业级:在此音域之外的音符会以红色标出。

    要关闭超音域音符色彩标记:在顶部菜单中选择编辑偏好设置...(Mac: MuseScore偏好设置...),单击“音符输入”标签页,然后取消勾选“用颜色标记超音域音符”。

    参见用颜色标记超出乐器音域的音符.

    Transpose written pitches to sound
    This option ensures that the staves of transposing instruments display music at the correct written pitch. Set the transpose in term of a musical interval (plus octave if required) up or down.

    导航箭头
    使用位于谱表属性窗口左下角的按钮来导航到前后的谱表。

    Staff / Part Properties: plucked strings only

    Staves of fretted, plucked-string instruments have a few extra options in addition to those listed above,

    弦数
    显示乐器上弦的数字。

    编辑弦数据…
    此按钮会打开一个对话框,以使您可以设定数字以及弦的调律。参见更改弦的调律.

    高级样式属性

    单击高级样式属性...按钮来打卡一个窗口以查看谱表的高级显示选项。其内容会依所选的谱表种类而变,请阅读下文相关章节以晓详情。

    模版

    在高级样式属性对话框的底部有许多按钮可以让您轻而易举地对以下内容进行更改:

    • 打击乐谱的谱线数
    • 拨弦乐器的谱表种类。举个例子,您可以将标准的谱表改成指法谱,反之亦然,or select from a number of tablature options.
    1. Make a selection from the drop-down list labelled "Template";
    2. 按下< Reset to Template;
    3. 按下OK来批准更改并关闭对话框(或者Cancel来取消操作)。

    标准谱表与打击乐谱选项

    显示谱号/拍号/小节线/调号/ ledger lines
    Option to turn the display of these elements ON or OFF.

    无符干
    若勾选它,谱表音符的符干、符杠、尾钩将会消失。

    符头体系
    参阅 符头体系.

    指法谱选项

    Upside down
    If not checked, the top tablature line will refer to the highest string, and the bottom tablature line to the lowest string (this is the most common option). If checked, the top tablature line refers to the lowest string, and the bottom tablature line to the highest line (e.g. Italian-style lute tablatures). For example:

    Example: 'upside-down' tablature
    'Upside down' tablature.

    指法谱选项:Fret Marks

    Fret marks are the numbers or letters used to indicate the location of notes on the fingerboard. The following group of properties define the appearance of fret marks:

    字体
    The font used to draw fret marks. 8 fonts are provided supporting all the necessary symbols in 8 different styles (modern Serif, modern Sans, Renaissance, Phalèse, Bonneuil-de Visée, Bonneuil-Gaultier, Dowland, Lute Didactic).

    大小
    Font size of fret marks in typographic points. Built-in fonts usually look good at a size of 9-10pt.

    垂直偏移
    MuseScore tries to place symbols in a sensible way and you do not usually need to alter this value (set to 0) for built-in fonts. If the font has symbols not aligned on the base line (or in some other way MuseScore does not expect), this property allows you to move fret-marks up (negative offsets) or down (positive offsets) for better vertical positioning. Values are in sp.

    Marks are
    Choice of Numbers (‘1’, ‘2’...) or Letters (‘a’, ‘b’...) as fret marks. When letters are used, ‘j’ is skipped and ‘k’ is used for the 9th fret.

    Marks are drawn
    Choice of placing fretmarks On lines or Above lines. For example:

    Example: letters
    Fretmark letters placed above line.

    Lines are
    Choice of Continuous (lines pass through fret marks) or Broken (a small space appears in the line where the fretmark is displayed). For example:

    Example: numbers
    Tablature with lines broken.

    Show back-tied fret marks
    If unticked, only the first note in a series of tied notes is displayed. If ticked, all notes in the tied series are displayed.

    Show fingering in tablature
    Tick to allow the display of fingering symbols applied from a palette.

    指法谱选项:Note Values

    This group of properties defines the appearance of the symbols indicating note values.

    字体
    The font used to draw the value symbols. Currently 5 fonts are provided supporting all the necessary symbols in 5 different styles (modern, Italian tablature, French tablature, French baroque (headless), French baroque). Used only with the Note symbols option.

    大小
    按照排版尺寸的字体大小。内置字体通常以15磅为宜。仅和 音符选项使用。

    垂直偏移
    Applies only when Note symbols is selected (see below). Use negative offset values to raise the note value symbols, positive values to lower them.

    Shown as:

    • None: No note value will be drawn (as in the examples above)
    • Note symbols: Symbols in the shape of notes will be drawn above the staff. When this option is selected, symbols are drawn only when the note value changes, without being repeated (by default) for a sequence of notes all of the same value. E.g.
      Example: note symbols
    • Stems and beams: Note stems and beams (or hooks) will be drawn. Values are indicated for each note, using the same typographic devices as for a regular staff; all commands of the standard Beam Palette can be applied to these beams too. E.g.
      Example: stems

    Repeat:

    If several notes in sequence have the same duration, you can specify if and where to repeat the same note symbol. i.e.

    • Never
    • At new system
    • At new measure
    • Always

    Note: This option is only available if "Shown as: Note symbols" is selected (see above).

    符干样式:

    • Beside staff: Stems are drawn as fixed height lines above/below the staff.
    • Through staff: Stems run through the staff to reach the fret marks.

    Note: This option is only available when "Shown as: Stems and Beams" is selected (see above).

    符干位置:

    • Above: Stems and beams are drawn above the staff.
    • Below: Stems and beams are drawn below the staff.

    Note: This option is only available when "Shown as: Stems and Beams" and "Stem style: Beside staff" is selected (see above).

    Half notes:

    • None
    • As short stems
    • As slashed stems

    音符: This option is only available when "Shown as: Stems and Beams and "Stem style: Beside staff" is selected (see above).

    显示休止符
    Whether note symbols should be used to indicate also the rests; when used for rests, note symbols are drawn at a slightly lower position. Used only with the Note symbols option.

    预览

    以指法谱格式显示为一个短乐谱,并应用所有当前参数。

    更改乐器

    You can change any instrument in a score to a different instrument at any time. The following method updates instrument sound, staff name, and staff transposition all at once.

    1. 右键单击小节的空白部分或者乐器名称,然后选择谱表属性...;
    2. 单击更改乐器...(在“分谱属性”下);
    3. 选取您需要的新乐器并点击OK以返回到谱表属性对话框;
    4. 再次单击OK来返回乐谱。

    Not to be confused with Mid-staff instrument change.

    Do you still have an unanswered question? Please log in first to post your question.