版面与格式

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    乐谱的版面与格式选项可在顶部菜单的格式找到。

    影响版面的方法

    本节列出了影响乐谱版面的主要命令和对话框。其他格式选项在页面下方(对于文本,参见文本样式和属性)。

    • 页面设置:调整乐谱的整体维度,如页面大小、页面边距和缩放。

    • 增加/缩减小节宽度:通过拉伸或挤压选定的小节来调整乐谱空间。

    • 乐谱:设置整体乐谱详细信息,如音乐字体、显示长休止符以及是否隐藏空谱表。

    • 页面:调整谱表和谱表组间距、乐谱和歌词边距等。

    • 小节样式:设置小节间距,这会影响每行小节的数量。

    • 大小:设置“缩小内容”和倚音、小谱表和小谱号的默认大小。

    其他命令:

    样式

    样式子菜单里包含的对话框使您可以调整许多乐谱元素的全局版式设定。要打开样式

    • 点击主菜单的格式样式…
    • 右键单击文档窗口中的空白处,然后选择样式…
    • 使用键盘快捷键(请参阅快捷键)。

    样式对话框的内容如下:

    乐谱

    要打开乐谱对话框,请选择格式样式…乐谱

    此对话框允许您设置全局属性,如音乐字体、显示长休止符、是否隐藏空谱表、Swing摆动播放等。

    • 音乐性符号字体:选择以Emmentaler、Bravura或Gonville字体显示。勾选此框“根据字体自动加载样式设置”。
    • 音乐性文本字体:选择以Emmentaler、Bravura、Gonville或MuseJazz字体显示。

    • 显示为标准音高:勾选此项以在乐谱上显示标准音高。如果取消勾号,乐谱将显示谱面音高。

    • 创建长休止符:勾选显示长休止符

      • 空小节最小数量:默认值为2。
      • 最小小节宽度:默认宽度为4sp。
    • 隐藏谱表组内的空谱表:此选项通过隐藏谱表组中的空小节来节省空间。用于缩简版乐谱

    • 请勿隐藏首个谱表组内空谱表:始终在第一个谱表组中显示谱表,即使它们由空小节组成。

    • 显示跨小节边界的音符时值:一项对早期音乐记谱有用的功能。 请参阅无限记谱

    • 当只有一种乐器时隐藏乐器名称:在此情况下,您通常不需要显示乐器名称。

    • Swing设定 allows you to control the degree of swing for the whole score.

      • Swing:选择关闭(默认)/8分音符/16分音符。
      • 选择swing比率:默认值为60%。

    如果您更喜欢在谱面上设置Swing摇摆节拍,请参阅Swing摇摆节拍.

    页面

    要打开页面对话框,请点击 格式样式...页面

    This dialog allows you to adjust the overall layout of your score by changing the spacing of margins, systems, staves, lyrics lines, and frames. You can also control the display of key signatures, time signatures and clefs.

    The diagram below is a guide to various parameters under the control of this dialog:

    乐谱版面

    • Music top margin: The distance between the top staff line of the first staff on the page and the top page margin.
    • Music bottom margin: The distance between the bottom staff line of the last staff on the page and the bottom page margin.

    • 谱表间距:The space between staves which are not part of a grand staff (see below).

    • Grand staff distance: The space between staves that share the same instrument—such as the piano, organ, or those of a guitar staff/tab pair.

    Note: To alter the space above one particular staff see Extra distance above staff (Staff properties).

    • 最小谱表组间距:两个谱表组之间允许的最小距离。
    • 最大谱表组间距:两个谱表组之间允许的最大距离。

    • 垂直占位框上边距:垂直占位框上方的默认边距高度。

    • 垂直占位框下边距:垂直占位框下方的默认边距高度。

    • Last system fill threshold: If the last system is longer than this percentage of the page width, it gets stretched to fill that width.

    The following check boxes allow you to control the display of clefs, time signatures, and key signatures—including the courtesy kind.

    • 为全部谱表组创建谱号/为全部谱表组创建调号/创建提示性谱号/创建提示性拍号/创建提示性调号。

    大小

    要打开大小对话框,请选择 格式样式...大小

    设置“缩小化元素”、倚音、小谱表以及谱号的比例大小。更改此部分选项的情况较为罕见。

    要打开页眉、页脚对话框,请选择格式样式...页眉、页脚

    This allows you to add header and footer text using meta tags (see Score information)—such as page numbers, page headers, copyright information etc. For example, you can create different Headers and Footers for even and odd pages, such as putting page numbers on the right for odd-numbered pages and on the left for even-numbered pages.

    If you hover with your mouse over the Header or Footer text region, a list of macros will appear, showing their meaning, as well as the existing meta tags and their content.

    To create a header or footer for an individual part, that part needs to be the active tab. To create a header or footer for a score with linked parts, make sure the main score is in the active tab.

    小节号

    要打开小节号对话框,请选择格式样式...小节号.

    This allows you to specify whether measure numbers will appear in the score, and, if so, at what intervals. You can also set the font properties.

    谱表组

    要打开谱表组对话框,请选择 格式样式...谱表组

    This dialog allows you to adjust certain properties of all systems.

    连谱号:

    • bracket thickness: Set the width of system brackets.
    • Brace thickness: Set the width of system braces.
    • System bracket distance: Set the distance between system brackets and the start barlines.
    • Brace distance: Set the distance between system braces and the start barlines.

    另请参阅Brackets

    分隔符:

    • / :Specify whether to show system dividers, what types, and apply global positioning offset values.

    乐器名:

    • 长乐器名:指定字体特征和对齐方式。
    • 短乐器名:指定字体特征和对齐方式。

    谱号

    要打开谱号 对话框,请选择格式样式...谱号

    选择默认指法谱谱号样式:标准衬线体.

    临时记号

    要打开临时记号对话框,请选择格式样式...临时记号

    使您可以指定乐谱在转调时如何显示临时记号。参见调号变更时的还原号.

    小节

    要打开小节 对话框,请选择格式样式...Measure

    For details, see Measure.

    小节线

    要打开小节线 对话框,请选择格式样式...小节线

    • Show repeat barline tips ("winged repeats):
    • Barline at start of single staff: Whether to show barlines at the beginning of a staff.
    • Barline at start of multiple staff: Whether to show barlines at the beginning of multiple staves.
    • Scale barlines to staff size: Affects "small" staves only.

    Other properties allow you to set the thickness of "thin," "thick" and double barlines, the distance between double barlines, and the repeat barline to dot distance.

    音符

    To open the Notes dialog, select StyleGeneral...Notes. The dialog can also be opened direct from the score by right-clicking on any note and selecting "Style…"

    Here you can adjust the distance and thickness of note-related objects (stems, ledger lines, dots, accidentals). Changing these would be unusual.

    符杠

    要打开符杠对话框,请选择样式一般...符杠

    This allows you to set the overall properties of note beams in the score:

    • 符杠粗细
    • 符杠间距:符杠间的垂直距离。
    • Broken beam minimum length: Affects secondary beams where they do not fully extend from note to note.

    Ticking the Flatten all beams option means that all note beams will be horizontal only—not sloped.

    连音

    要打开连音对话框,请选择格式样式...连音

    Vertical Distance from Notes:

    • 最大倾斜:Limit the slope of tuplet brackets.
    • 与符干垂直间距:针对连音数和括号。
    • 与符头垂直间距:针对连音数和括号。

    与音符的水平间距:

    • Distance before stem of first note: Sets default position of start of tuplet bracket when above/below note stems.
    • Distance before head of first note: Sets default position of start of tuplet bracket when above/below noteheads.
    • Distance after stem of last note: Sets default position of end of tuplet bracket when above/below note stems.
    • Distance after head of last note: Sets default position of end of tuplet bracket when above/below noteheads.

    Brackets:

    • Bracket thickness:
    • Bracket hook height; Sets the default length of the vertical hooks at the ends of tuplet brackets

    属性:

    • Direction / Number type / Bracket type

    琶音

    要打开琶音对话框,选择格式样式...琶音

    在此处,您可以更改到下列琶音和扫弦符号到音符的距离、线条粗细以及锚勾长度:

    琶音和扫弦符号

    连句/延音线

    要打开连句/延音线对话框,请选择格式样式...连句/延音线

    • Line thickness at end
    • Line thickness middle
    • Dotted line thickness
    • 最小延音线长度
    • Autoplace min. distance

    Hairpins

    To open the Hairpins dialog, select FormatStyle...Hairpins.

    Here you can set the default properties of hairpins (crescendo and decresendo lines):

    • Placement:位于谱表上方还是下方。
    • Position above/below: Set a numerical value in sp. units.
    • 高度:渐变记号的开口大小。
    • Continue height
    • Autoplace distance to dynamics
    • 线条粗细

    Volta

    To open the Volta dialog, select FormatStyle...Volta.

    Here you can set the default properties of voltas:

    • Default position: Set X- and Y-offsets.
    • Hook height: The length of descending lines at the ends of voltas.
    • 线条粗细
    • 线条样式:A solid line is the default option, but there are dotted and dashed alternatives.

    八度记号

    要打开八度记号对话框,请选择格式样式...八度记号

    Here you can set the default properties of ottavas (octave lines):

    • Numbers only: If unticked, the ottava also displays "va" or "vb" after the number.
    • Position above/below: Set the X- and Y-offsets for the ottava.
    • Hook height above/below: The length of the ascending/descending line at the end of the ottava.
    • Line thickness
    • Line style: A solid line is the default option, but there are dotted and dashed alternatives.

    踏板记号

    要打开踏板记号对话框,请选择格式样式...踏板记号

    Here you can set the default properties of pedal lines:

    • Placement: Below or above the staff.
    • Position above/below: Set the exact default position using offset values.
    • Line thickness:
    • Line style: solid is the default but there is a range of dashed and dotted options.

    颤音

    要打开颤音对话框,请选择格式样式...Trill.

    Here you can set the default placement of Trill lines:

    • Placement: Below or above the staff.
    • Position above/below: Set the exact default position using offset values.

    揉颤音(Vibrato)

    要打开揉颤音对话框,请选择格式样式...揉颤音

    Here you can set the default placement of Vibrato lines:

    • Placement: Below or above the staff.
    • Position above/below: Set the exact default position using offset values.

    弯音

    要打开弯音对话框,请选择格式样式...弯音

    Here you can set the display properties of Bends. This includes the line thickness, arrow width and font properties.

    Text Line

    To open the Text Line dialog, select FormatStyle...Text Line.

    Here you can set the default placement of text lines:

    • Placement: Below or above the staff.
    • Position above/below: Set the exact default position using offset values.

    奏法记号、装饰音

    要打开奏法记号、装饰音对话框,请选择格式样式... 奏法记号、装饰音

    This dialog allows you set the default placement distances and size (as a percentage) of articulations and ornaments.

    延音记号

    要打开 延音记号对话框,请选择格式样式...Fermatas.

    This dialog allows you set the default placement of fermatas.

    谱表文本

    要打开谱表文本对话框,请选择格式样式... 谱表文本

    This dialog allows you set the default placement and autoplacement properties of staff text.

    速度记号

    要打开速度记号对话框,请选择格式样式...谱表文本

    此对话框允许您设置速度记号的默认位置和自动排版属性。

    歌词

    要打开歌词对话框,请选择格式样式...Lyrics.

    歌词对话框

    • Placement, Position above/below: Set default position of the nearest lyric line to the staff.
    • Line height: Set the default distance between lyric lines.
    • Lyrics dash: Set the length of inter-syllable dashes and the space between them.
    • Lyrics melisma: Set default properties of melismas.

    力度记号

    To open the Dynamics dialog, select FormatStyle...Dynamics.

    此对话框允许您设置力度记号的默认位置和自动布局属性。

    排练记号

    要打开排练记号对话框,请选择格式样式...排练记号

    This dialog allows you set the default placement and autoplacement properties of rehearsal marks.

    通奏低音/数字低音

    要打开数字低音 对话框,请选择格式样式...数字低音

    This allows you to set the default font, style, alignment and position of figured bass.

    Chord Symbols

    要打开和弦记号 对话框,请选择格式样式...和弦记号.

    This section allows you to adjust the format and positioning of chord symbols:

    外观:

    • Chose a default chord symbol style—Standard, Jazz or Custom.

    Note spelling:

    • Chose the spelling convention for chord symbols and whether to use capital or small letters.

    Positioning:

    • Distance to fretboard diagram: The distance (in sp. units) from a chord symbol to a fretboard diagram when both are applied to the same location on a staff. This value overrides the above "Default vertical position" setting. The user can chose to place a chord symbol below a fretboard diagram by entering a negative value.
    • Minimum chord spacing: The minimum space to allow between chord symbols.
    • Maximum barline distance: Increases the distance between the final chord symbol in a measure and the following barline. You may wish to adjust this value if there is a recurring problem in the score with overlap between the final chord symbol in one measure and the following chord symbol.

    Capo:

    • Capo fret position: Enter the number of the capo position at which you want to display substitute chords, in brackets, for all chord symbols in the score.

    Fretboard Diagrams

    To open the Fretboard Diagrams dialog, select FormatStyle...Fretboard Diagrams.

    This section allows you to adjust the format and positioning of Fretboard diagrams.

    • Default vertical position: the distance in sp. units from a newly applied fretboard diagram to a staff. A negative value may be used.
    • Scale: Increase or decrease the size of the fretboard diagram in the score.
    • Fret offset number font size: Increase or decrease the size of a fret number displayed next to a diagram.
    • Position Left/Right: Display fret number to the left or right of the fretboard diagram.
    • Barre line thickness: Make barre lines in fretboard diagrams thicker or thinner.

    Text Styles

    要打开文本样式 对话框,请选择格式样式...文本样式

    This dialog allows you to set the formatting of all text styles. Individual text styles can also be set from the Inspector.

    OK / Cancel / Apply buttons

    Any changes made in the Style dialog are immediately applied to the score, but can be rescinded at any time by pressing Cancel—which also exits the dialog. Press OK to save your changes to the score and close the window.

    If you are making formatting adjustments in an instrument part, use the Apply to all Parts button to apply all changes to all parts in the score.

    页面设置...

    参见页面设置

    添加/移除换行符

    This tool adds or removes system breaks over all or part of the score:

    1. Select a range of measures: if no selection is made, the command is applied to the whole score.
    2. Chose FormatAdd/Remove System Breaks…. The following dialog appears.

      Add/Remove Line Breaks

    3. Chose one of the following options:

      • Break systems every X (select number) measures;
      • Add system break at end of each system;
      • Remove current system breaks;
    4. Press OK.

    Stretch

    Used to increase, decrease or reset the horizontal spacing of notes within selected measures.

    Increase / Decrease layout stretch

    1. Select a range of measures. Or use Ctrl+A to select the whole score.
    2. Chose one of two options:
      • To increase stretch:
        • Use the shortcut } (right curly bracket) (Mac: Ctrl+Alt+9).
        • Or from the menu bar, select FormatStretchIncrease Layout Stretch.
      • To decrease stretch:
        • Use the shortcut { (left curly bracket) (Mac: Ctrl+Alt+8).
        • Or from the menu bar, select FormatStretchDecrease Layout Stretch.

    Reset stretch

    To reset stretch to the default spacing of 1:

    1. Select a range of measures. Or use Ctrl+A to select the whole score.
    2. From the menu, select FormatStretchReset Layout Stretch.

    See also Measure Properties: Layout stretch. This allows you to set the stretch more precisely.

    Reset Style

    To reset all text styles to the "factory" default settings:

    • From the menu, select FormatReset Style.

    Reset Beams

    To restore beams to the mode defined in the local time signatures:

    1. Select the section of the score you want to reset. If nothing is selected, the operation will apply to the whole score;
    2. Select FormatReset Beams.

    See also Beams.

    Reset Shapes and Positions

    The Reset Shapes and Positions command restores the default positions, note stem directions and shapes (slurs, ties etc.) for selected score elements. To apply:

    1. Select the elements or the region of the score that you wish to reset. Or use Ctrl+A to select the whole score.
    2. Press Ctrl+R; or, from the menu, select FormatReset Shapes and positions.

    Load / Save style

    It is easy to transfer a complete set of styles (all General Style settings, all text styles, and page settings) from one score to the other using the Load/Save Style feature.

    To load a customized style:

    1. Go to FormatLoad Style....
    2. Navigate to and select the Style file (.mss) and click Open (or double click on the file).

    All existing styles in the score should update automatically.

    To save a customized style:

    1. Go to FormatSave Style....
    2. Name and save the style file (the default folder is set in your Preferences). Styles are stored as *.mss files.

    Note: You can also define a preferred style for scores and parts in the Score section of MuseScore's Preferences.

    See also

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